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Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Module 5: Standard Maritime Orders

Reference:         English for Maritime Students
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I. OBJECTIVES


At the end of the lesson the students will be able to:
a.       State at least five standard wheel orders
b.      State at least five standard engine orders
c.       State and correctly pronounce the standard marine phrases for selected wheel and engine orders

     A.            Standard Wheel Orders

         The art of steering a ship can be gained by practice. The ship’s head, rudder and steering wheel all turn the same way, that is, to turn the ship to starboard one must turn the wheel to starboard. The angle of turn given to the rudder is shown in degrees on the helm indicator situated forward of the wheel.

          All orders received by the helmsman are to be repeated twice; once when the order is received and again when the order has been carried out. This is to ensure that the helmsman has both understood and carried out the orders correctly.

          Here are some standard wheel orders taken from the Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) list:                    

Order   
Meaning
Midships
Rudder to be held in the fore and aft position
Port five
5° of port rudder to be held.
Port ten
10° of port rudder to be held.
Port fifteen
15° of port rudder to be held.
Port twenty
20° of port rudder to be held.
Port twenty-five
25° of port rudder to be held.
Hard-a-port
Rudder to be held fully over to port.
Starboard five
5° of starboard rudder to be held.
Starboard ten
10° of starboard rudder to be held.
Starboard fifteen
15° of starboard rudder to be held.
Starboard twenty
20° of starboard rudder to be held.
Starboard twenty-five  
25° of starboard rudder to be held.
Hard-a-starboard
Rudder to be held fully over to starboard.
Ease to five
Reduce amount of rudder to 5° and hold.
Ease to ten
Reduce amount of rudder to 10° and hold.
Ease to fifteen
Reduce amount of rudder to 15° and hold.
Ease to twenty 
Reduce Amount of rudder to 20° and hold.
Steady 
Reduce swing as rapidly as possible.
Steady as she goes
Steer a steady course on the compass heading indicated at the time of the order. The helmsman is to repeat the order and call out the compass heading on receiving the order. When the ship is stead on that heading, the helmsman is to call out: “Stead…”



Examples:
    1. When the officer of the watch requires a course to be steered by compass, the direction in which he wants the wheel turned should be stated followed by each numeral being said separately, including zero.

Order
Course to be steered
“Port, steer one eight two”
182°
“Starboard, steer zero eight two”
082°
“Port, steer three zero five”
305°


    1. On receipt of the order to steer, for example, 182°, the helmsman should repeat it and bring the ship round steadily to the course ordered. When the ship is steady on the course ordered, the helmsman is to call out:
“Steady on one eight two”

The person giving the order should acknowledge the helmsman’s call out.
                If it is desired to steer on a selected mark the helmsman should be ordered to:

                                                “Steer on…buoy…(mark)…(beacon)”

                   The helmsman should repeat the order and when steady on the mark call out:

                                                “Steady on…buoy…(mark)…(beacon)”

                   The person giving the order should acknowledge the helmsman’s call out.


  1. Standard Engine Orders
Any engine order given should be repeated by the person operating the bridge telegraph/s and the officers of the watch should ensure that the order is carried out correctly and right away.

Listed below are some standard engine orders from the SCMP manual.

Order   
Meaning
Full ahead
Maximum manoeuvring engine revolutions for ahead propulsion.
Half ahead
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Slow ahead
Revolution as indicated in ship’s orders.
Dead slow ahead            
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Stop engine/s   
No engine revolutions.
Dead slow astern
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Slow astern       
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Half astern
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Full astern
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Emergency full ahead/astern
Revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.
Stand by engine
Engine-room personnel fully ready to manoeuvre and bridge manned with personnel to relay engine orders.
Finished with engines
Movement of engineer/s no longer required.


Examples:
Order
Meaning
Bow thrust full/half to port
Ship’s head to move to port with power as specified.
Bow thrust full/half to starboard
Ship’s head to move to starboard with power as specified.
Stern thrust full/half to port
Ship’s stern to move to port with power as specified.
Stern thrust full/half to starboard
Ship’s stern to move to starboard with power as specified.
Bow/stern thrust stop
No bow/stern thrust revolutions.


For vessels with variable pitch propellers, the meaning of the order would include the combination of pitch and revolutions as indicated in ship’s orders.

Exercise:
State the standard marine phrases for the following wheel and engine orders. Write your answer on the blank below each number.

  1. Rudder to be held fully over the port.
____________________________________________________________
  1. 15° of port rudder to be held.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Rudder to be held in the fore and aft position.
____________________________________________________________
  1. 10° of starboard rudder to be held.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Rudder to be held fully over to the starboard.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Reduce amount of rudder to 5° and hold.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Reduce swing as rapidly as possible.
____________________________________________________________         
  1. 25° of starboard rudder to be held.
____________________________________________________________
  1. No engine revolution.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Engine-room personnel fully ready to manoeuvre and bridge manned with personnel to relay engine orders.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Movement of engine/s no longer required.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Ship’s head to move to port with power as specified.
____________________________________________________________
  1. No bow/stern thrust revolutions.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Ship’s head to move to starboard with power as specified.
____________________________________________________________
  1. Ship’s stern to move to starboard with power as specified.
____________________________________________________________


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