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Monday, February 21, 2011

Module 4: Adverbs


References: English for Maritime Students; Keys for Writers; www.ccc.commnet.edu
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I.             OBJECTIVES

This module aims to make the learner:
a.    identify an adverb from the other parts of a sentence
b.    know the different uses of adverb
c.    make sentences with adverbs on their own


II.            DISCUSSION PROPER

  1. What is an adverb?

Adverbs are words that modify:
a.         verb (The boat sailed slowly. — How did it sail?)
b.         an adjective (He is the owner of a very large ship. — How large was his ship?)
c.         another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the corridor. — How slowly did she move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

·         That lovely woman owns that newly launched sailboat.

  1. What are the common kinds of adverbs?
    1. Adverbs of Manner
         She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

    1. Adverbs of Place
         She has lived on the island all her life.
         She still lives there now.

    1. Adverbs of Frequency
         She takes the boat to the mainland everyday.
         She often goes by herself.

    1. Adverbs of Time
         She tries to get back before dark.
         It's starting to get dark now.
         She finished her tea first.
         She left early.

    1. Adverbs of Purpose
         She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
         She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

  1. Other types of adverbs:
    1. adverb clause: if a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence)
                    Example:
When this voyage is over, we're going home to our families.

    1. adverbial phrase: When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):
Examples:
He went to the movies.
She works on holidays.
They lived in Canada during the war.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:
          He calls his mother as often as possible.

                        She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
         The senator ran to catch the boat.


D.   Rules in using adverbs:
    1. Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that "The students showed a really wonderful attitude," and that "The students showed a wonderfully casual attitude," and that "My professor is really tall, but not "He ran real fast."

    1. Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show       degree.

Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.
The student who reads fastest will finish first.

    1. We often use more and mostless and least to show degree with adverbs:

With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
          The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.
          She worked less confidently after her accident.
          That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

    1. The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality:
He can't run as fast as his sister.

    1. A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

          He arrived late.
          Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.

    1. In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual situations:

          She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.
          He did wrong by her.
         He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

    1. Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify, or downtone. Here are some examples:

         Emphasizers:
    really don't believe him.
    He literally wrecked his mother's car.
    She simply ignored me.
    They're going to be late, for sure.

         Amplifiers:
    The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
    absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
    They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
    so wanted to go with them.
    We know this city well.

         Downtoners:
    kind of like this college.
    Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
    His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
    We can improve on this to some extent.
    The boss almost quit after that.
    The school was all but ruined by the storm.

    1. Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by       premodifiers:
         She runs very fast.
         We're going to run out of material all the faster


  1. Positions of Adverbs
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.

         Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.
         The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
         The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

          Before the main verb:
never get up before nine o'clock.

Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb:
I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason.
·         
Before the verb used to: 
I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb:

         He finally showed up for batting practice.
         She has recently retired.

Sequencing adverbs

When we want to show that processes or events happen one after the other, we use sequencing adverbs or sequence words.

Sequencing adverbs/sequence words are usually put at the beginning of the process or event they reproduce. Some common sequence words are: first, then, next, after that, afterwards, later, eventually, finally.

Example:
First, the captain inspected the cabins, then he entered the galley; after that he proceeded to the engine room; and finally he went to the radio room.

The events may be stated in a series of sentences, or they may be linked by semicolon (;) or the connective and. Except for first and finally the words may be used in any order.


  1. Order of Adverbs
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one.
 THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS 
Verb
Manner
Place
Frequency
Time
Purpose
Beth swims
enthusiastically
in the pool
every morning
before dawn
to keep in shape.
Dad walks
impatiently
into town
every afternoon
before supper
to get a newspaper.
Alma   naps
in her room
every morning
before lunch.
In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.


III.          EXERCISE
  1. Briefly describe the stages in the following processes using sequencing adverbs such as firstthennextafter thatafterwardslatereventuallyfinally:
    1. circulation of oil in a typical marine diesel
    2. preparing the turbo generator for operation


IV.          VOCABULARY
  1. Sludge – the sediment left in fuel oil tanks         
  2. Vent – a valve in a tank or compartment used primarily to permit air to escape      
  3. Tube boiler – boiler in which the water flows through the tube and is heated by the gases of combustion   
  4. Gauge glass – device for indicating the liquid level in a tank    
  5. Feed water – fresh water with the highest possible level of purity, made in evaporator for use in boilers
  6. Evaporator – a strong metal tank or vessel composed of tubes, headers in which water is heated by the gases of combustion to form steam
  7. Back pressure – the pressure exerted on the exhaust side of a pump or engine         
  8. Broiler – a distilling device to produce fresh water from sea water
  9. Painter – length of rope permanently secured at bow of a boat for towing or making fast             
  10. Lashing – a fastening made by a piece of cordage, chain or wire in securing a movable object or uniting two or more parts of objects together     

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